pillars in hard rock mining excavation

Figure 27 illustrated the pattern of stress change within the pillar during the excavation process for width-to-weight ratio equal to 1.5. It can be seen from this figure that, in mining step 7, pillar load drops noticeably indicating the pillar failure. Figure 28 showed the maximum principal stress in the pillars during excavation process. As ...

  • 1 Introduction Hindawi

    1 Introduction Hindawi

    Figure 27 illustrated the pattern of stress change within the pillar during the excavation process for width-to-weight ratio equal to 1.5. It can be seen from this figure that, in mining step 7, pillar load drops noticeably indicating the pillar failure. Figure 28 showed the maximum principal stress in the pillars during excavation process. As ...

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  • Geotechnical considerations in underground mines

    Geotechnical considerations in underground mines

    Geotechnical Considerations in Underground Mining/Department of Industry and Resources Guideline Document No. ZME723QT 1.0 INTRODUCTION The potentially hazardous nature of underground mining requires the application of sound geotechnical engineering practice to determine the ground conditions, the ground support and reinforcement requirements, as well as the size, shape and

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  • PDF Width Design of Small Coal Pillar of GobSide Entry

    PDF Width Design of Small Coal Pillar of GobSide Entry

    Reasonable width of gob-side coal pillar can reduce the waste of coal resources and is conducive to roadway stability. According to the distribution of internal and external stres

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  • The role of the rock mechanics engineer in the mining

    The role of the rock mechanics engineer in the mining

    Feb 11, 2016 From the ICMEESA archive The responsibilities of the rock mechanics engineer in the mining industry, and the available computer programs and their applications. Over the past decade (1963 1973), there has been a change of emphasis in the field of rock mechanics from a purely theoretical approach to the practical solution of problems which

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  • Lecture 4 Underground Mining SlideShare

    Lecture 4 Underground Mining SlideShare

    Nov 02, 2011 Underground Mining Methods UNDERGROUND MINING METHODS Soft rock Mining Methods Hard rock Mining Methods Mining can be done by any one of the following methods- 1) Longwall mining. 2) Room-and-pillar mining. 3) Blast mining. 4) Shortwall mining. 5) Coal Skimming.

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  • Glossary of Mining Terms SEC

    Glossary of Mining Terms SEC

    Anthracite - A hard, ... Room-and-pillar mining - A method of mining flat-lying ore deposits in which the mined-out area, ... Shaft - A vertical or inclined excavation in rock for the purpose of providing access to an orebody. Usually equipped with a hoist at the top, which lowers and raises a conveyance for handling workers and materials. ...

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  • PDF Pillar Design in the Hard Rock Mines of South Africa

    PDF Pillar Design in the Hard Rock Mines of South Africa

    Published 2012. Engineering. International. Journal of Mining amp Geo-Engineering. This paper gives an overview of the difficulties associated with the design of hard rock pillars in South African mines. Recent examples of large scale pillar collapses in South Africa suggest that these were caused by weak partings which traversed the pillars.

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  • Glossary of Mining Terms Coal Education

    Glossary of Mining Terms Coal Education

    Competent rock - Rock which, because of its physical and geological characteristics, is capable of sustaining openings without any structural support except pillars and walls left during mining (stalls, light props, and roof bolts are not considered structural support). Contact - The place or surface where two different kinds of rocks meet ...

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  • Hard rock pillar strength estimation an applied empirical

    Hard rock pillar strength estimation an applied empirical

    Pillars are present in all hard rock mining operations and in order to effectively design these pillars, an estimate of the pillar strength is required. Two new pillar strength estimation methods for hard rock mine pillars are presented in this thesis. 31 pillar case histories of the database that was used to develop these new formulae were acquired during a cooperative study, entitled ...

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  • Hardrock Mining Techniques Underground Mines Minings

    Hardrock Mining Techniques Underground Mines Minings

    Underground mining (hard rock) Underground hard rock mining refers to various underground mining techniques used to excavate hard minerals such as those containing metals like gold, copper, zinc, nickel and lead or gems such as diamonds. In contrast soft rock mining refers to excavation of softer minerals such as coal, or oil sands.

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  • PDF Pillar Design in the Hard Rock Mines of South Africa

    PDF Pillar Design in the Hard Rock Mines of South Africa

    Published 2012. Engineering. International. Journal of Mining amp Geo-Engineering. This paper gives an overview of the difficulties associated with the design of hard rock pillars in South African mines. Recent examples of large scale pillar collapses in South Africa suggest that these were caused by weak partings which traversed the pillars.

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  • Martin CD Maybee WG 2000 The strength of hard

    Martin CD Maybee WG 2000 The strength of hard

    Martin,C.D., Maybee, W.G. (2000) The strength of hard-rock pillars, International Journal of Rock Mechanics amp Mining Sciences Volume 37 1239-1246. has been cited by the following article Article

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  • 3 Technologies in Exploration Mining and Processing

    3 Technologies in Exploration Mining and Processing

    Underground coal mining today is basically done by two methods room-and-pillar mining with continuous miners, and longwall mining with shearers. The former is essential for developing large blocks of coal for longwall extraction. ... Numerous ideas for the rapid excavation of hard rock were explored in the early 1970s, motivated by the defense ...

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  • hardrock room ad pillar mining in arizona

    hardrock room ad pillar mining in arizona

    Room And Pillar Hard Rock Mining Lighting. St joe minerals corporation, recognizing the need for improving the illumination of the working places in their mines, entered into a cooperative research agreement with the bureau of mines to utilize the bureaus expertise in this field some similarity in the environment in which coal and hard rock miners work has allowed the application of developed ...

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  • UNDERGROUND LODE HARD ROCK MINING

    UNDERGROUND LODE HARD ROCK MINING

    Underground hard rock mining refers to various underground mining techniques used to excavate hard minerals, mainly those minerals containing metals such as gold, copper, zinc, nickel and lead, but also involves using the same techniques for excavating gems such as diamonds. In contrast soft rock mining refers to excavation of softer minerals ...

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  • 15 Longwall and caving mining methods

    15 Longwall and caving mining methods

    15.2 Longwall mining in hard rock 15.2.1 Basic geomechanics considerations-Near-field rock is usually strong, and mining takes place at considerable depth.-Pseudo-continuous behavior may be disturbed by two influences natural or mining-induced discontinuities (figure below), and rockburst.

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  • Stope amp Pillar Mining Mining Nature

    Stope amp Pillar Mining Mining Nature

    *Pillars are basically designed to support roof for safe working till end. *Pillar height is a major factor for deciding size of pillar. *Stope amp Pillar is applied to flat ore body or dipping less than the angle of repose. General Feature II *Maximum permissible dip is 40 degree for stope amp pillar method of mining. *Very thick ore body can be ...

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  • Protecting Miners from Rock Bursts TM International

    Protecting Miners from Rock Bursts TM International

    A rock burst is a sudden and potentially violent dislodging of a rock mass from the walls of a mine, tunnel or quarry. It is typically caused by the rapid or even instantaneous release of accumulated energy. Rock bursts are often present in the deep-level mining of hard, brittle rock deposits. Rock bursts may result in the closing of a ...

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  • Common Techniques and Strategies for Excavation

    Common Techniques and Strategies for Excavation

    Aug 14, 2018 Type 2 Rock Excavation. When a site is classified as rock excavation, it means that the area consists of sedimentary, metamorphic, and igneous rocks that need to be removed. These materials could be in the form of solid rock, boulders, or detached stones with a

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  • PDF Width Design of Small Coal Pillar of GobSide Entry

    PDF Width Design of Small Coal Pillar of GobSide Entry

    Reasonable width of gob-side coal pillar can reduce the waste of coal resources and is conducive to roadway stability. According to the distribution of internal and external stres

    read more
  • Underground mining hard rock Infogalactic the

    Underground mining hard rock Infogalactic the

    Underground hard rock mining refers to various underground mining techniques used to excavate hard minerals, mainly those containing metals such as ore containing gold, silver, iron, copper, zinc, nickel, tin and lead, but also involves using the same techniques for excavating ores of gems such as diamonds. In contrast soft rock mining refers ...

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  • Digging deeper Mining methods explained Anglo American

    Digging deeper Mining methods explained Anglo American

    The excavation usually has stepped sides to ensure the safety of the miners and a wide ramp where equipment can travel, allowing the product to be removed efficiently from the site. Open-pit mining is practical when the ore-bodies of the rock are large and located closer to the surface. Advantages of open-pit mining include

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  • Underground Mining Methods UFRGS

    Underground Mining Methods UFRGS

    FIGURE 1.2 Classic room-and-pillar mining this chapter the goal of this chapter is to summarize briefly the characteristics of the major mining methods. 1.3.2 Room-and-Pillar Mining Room-and-pillar mining is designed for flat-bedded deposits of limited thickness, such as copper shale, coal, salt and potash, limestone, and dolomite.

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  • 12 Mining methods and method selection

    12 Mining methods and method selection

    ratio is required and a pillar mining method is precluded.-Applicable to both metalliferousmining in hard-rock and coal mining in soft rock.-Requires a reasonably uniform distribution of grade and a high degree of continuity of orebody. 1) In hard-rock-Seeks to maintain pseudo-continuous behavior of the near-field rock

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  • Guide To Underground Mining Methods And Applications

    Guide To Underground Mining Methods And Applications

    guide-to-underground-mining-methods-and-applications 2/17 Downloaded from las.gnome.org on July 3, 2021 by guest corners of the world. Industry experts have contributed sections on General Mine Design Considerations Room-and-Pillar Mining of Hard Rock/Soft Rock Longwall Mining of Hard Rock Shrinkage Stoping Sublevel Stoping Cut-and-

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  • HardRock Stability Analysis for Span Design in Entry

    HardRock Stability Analysis for Span Design in Entry

    Mar 13, 2019 Keywords hard-rock stability span design graph entry-type excavations support vector machine extreme learning machine 1. Introduction Entry-type mining methods, such as cut and ll, room and pillar and shrinkage stoping, have been replaced in many mining operations by lower cost, non-entry mining methods, such as sub-level caving.

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  • Innovation and future of mining rock mechanics DOAJ

    Innovation and future of mining rock mechanics DOAJ

    Feb 01, 2021 The idea is to utilize mining pressure and expansion characteristics of the collapsed rock mass in the goaf to automatically form roadways, avoiding roadway excavation and waste of coal pillar. Based on the basic principles of mining rock mechanics, the equilibrium mining theory and the short cantilever beam mechanical model are ...

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  • 5 Rock Excavation Tools Drilling and Excavation

    5 Rock Excavation Tools Drilling and Excavation

    Rock excavation tools disintegrate and remove the rock from boreholes and tunnels by four basic mechanisms thermal spalling, fusion and vaporization, mechanical stresses, and chemical reactions, as shown in Figure 5.1. Novel or advanced drilling tools utilize exotic systems such as lasers or electron beams to melt or vaporize rock or ...

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  • UNDERGROUND MINE PLANNING AND DESIGN

    UNDERGROUND MINE PLANNING AND DESIGN

    5. Underground Mining Methods and Technology, Proceedings of the International Symposium, Nottingham, Elsevier 1986. Coal Mining Technology Theory and Practice Robert Stefanko SME 1983. 6. Underground Excavations in rock E. Hoek and E.T. Brown IMM, 1980. Support of Underground Excavation in Hard Rock E. Hoeket. al., Oxford and IBH 1995.

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  • Hard Rock Mining Safety Solutions MineARC Systems

    Hard Rock Mining Safety Solutions MineARC Systems

    Nov 05, 2020 Hard rock mining safety solutions by MineARC Systems have been an integral aspect of many mine sites globally for over 20 years. Since our first MineSAFE Refuge Chamber sale in 1999, we have worked tirelessly to improve and expand our hard rock mining product range and technologies with the overarching goal of achieving safer working ...

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  • Protecting Miners from Rock Bursts TM International

    Protecting Miners from Rock Bursts TM International

    A rock burst is a sudden and potentially violent dislodging of a rock mass from the walls of a mine, tunnel or quarry. It is typically caused by the rapid or even instantaneous release of accumulated energy. Rock bursts are often present in the deep-level mining of hard, brittle rock deposits. Rock bursts may result in the closing of a ...

    read more
  • The role of the rock mechanics engineer in the mining

    The role of the rock mechanics engineer in the mining

    Feb 11, 2016 From the ICMEESA archive The responsibilities of the rock mechanics engineer in the mining industry, and the available computer programs and their applications. Over the past decade (1963 1973), there has been a change of emphasis in the field of rock mechanics from a purely theoretical approach to the practical solution of problems which

    read more
  • Rock Mechanics For Underground Mining by B H G

    Rock Mechanics For Underground Mining by B H G

    Mar 14, 2012 Problems.- 8 Excavation design in stratified rock.- 8.1 Design factors.- 8.2 Rock mass response to mining.- 8.3 Roof bed deformation mechanics.- 8.4 Roof design procedure for plane strain.- 8.5 Roof design for square and rectangular excavations.- 8.6 Improved design procedures.- 9 Excavation design in jointed rock.- 9.1 Design factors.- 9.2 ...

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  • PDF Design of Unsupported Rock Pillars in a Roomand

    PDF Design of Unsupported Rock Pillars in a Roomand

    Room-and-pillar mining method is one of the most popular underground mining method in the world. If the room-and-pillar mining method is able to be adopted in civil works, it would be highly probable to reduce underground construction costs and to expand a underground structure in use. Therefore, this study aims to analyze the design procedure of unsupported rock pillars which are ...

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  • Review on Rockburst Theory and Types of Rock Support

    Review on Rockburst Theory and Types of Rock Support

    of the excavation to help restrain the movement of the rock walls and avoid the failure of rock mass. Steel arches, wooden cribs and fiber reinforced shotcrete are some types of external supports. Backfill is another common type of external, passive support used in hard rock mining. Internal supports continue to see technological de-

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  • Excavation Method of Reducing Blasting Vibration in

    Excavation Method of Reducing Blasting Vibration in

    Drilling and blasting method as a common excavation method is widely used in the underground engineering construction. However, in the complicated geological conditions, the path of blasting excavation available has limitation, and then the larger blasting vibration is produced, which influence the stability and safety of the protected structure.

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